INFERTILITY AND ITS MANAGEMENT
Infertility in men and women :
Infertility happens when a couple can not conceive after having regular unprotected sex.
It may be that one partner can’t contribute to conception, or that a women is unable to carry a pregnancy to full them. It is often defined as not conceiving after 12 months of regular intercourse without the use of birth control.
Cause in men :
The following are common causes of infertility in men.
Semen’s is the milky fluids that a man’s penis releases during organism. Semen consists of fluid and sperm. The fluids comes from the prostate gland, the seminal vesicle, and other sex glands.
The sperms is produced in the testicles.
When a man ejaculates and releases semen through the penis , the seminal fluid, or semen, helps transport the sperm toward the egg.
- The following problems are possible :
low sperm count : The man ejaculates a low number of sperm. A sperm count of under 15 million is considered low. Around on third of couples have difficulty conceiving due to low sperm count.
- Low sperm mobility (motility) : the sperm can’t “swin” as well they should to reach the egg.
- Abnormal sperm : the sperm may have an unusual shape, making it harder to move and fertilizer an egg.
Causes in women :
Infertility in women can also have a range of causes.
- Age : the ability to conceive starts to fall around the age of 32 years.
- Smoking : smoking significantly increases the risk of infertility in both men and women, and it may underline the effects of fertility treatment. Smoking during opregnancy increases the chance of pregnancy loss. Passive smoking has also been linked to lower fertility.
- Alcohol : Any amount of alcohol consumption can affect the chances of conceiving.
- Being obese or overweight : this can increase the risk of infertility in women as well as men.
- Eating disorders : if an eating disorder leads to serious weight loss, fertility problems may raise
- Diet :A lack of folic acid , iron, zinc, and vitamin B-12 can affect fertility. Women who are at risk, including those a vegan diet, should ask the doctor about supplements.
- Exercise : Both too much and too little exercise can lead fertility problems
- Sexually transmitted infections(STIs) : Chlamyodia can damage the fallopian tubes in women and cause inflammation in a men’s scrotum. some other STIs may also cause infertility.
- Exposure to some chemicals : some pesticides, herbicides, metals ,such as lead ,and solvents have been linked to fertility problems in both men and women. A mouse study has suggested that ingredients in some household detergents may reduce fertility.
- Mental stress : this may cause female ovulation and male sperm production and can lead to reduced sexual activity.
Basic investigations for infertility :
FSH, LH, AMH,PROLACTINE,TESTOSTRONE,PROGESTERON,ESTRADIOL,DHEA-S,TSH, ANDROGEN
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